Adjusted EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization)

Adjusted EBITDA is the result before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (including income from other operational investments) adjusted for effects that do not relate to the period, recur irregularly or that are atypical for business operation, and for net income from fair value adjustments to investment properties. These non-recurring items include the development of new fields of business and business processes, acquisition projects, expenses for refinancing and equity increases (where not treated as capital procurement costs), IPO preparation costs and expenses for pre-retirement part-time work arrangements and severance payments.

Adjusted EBITDA Rental

The adjusted EBITDA Rental is calculated by subtracting the operating expenses of the Rental segment and the expenses for maintenance in the Rental segment from the Group’s rental income.

Adjusted EBITDA Value-add Business

The adjusted EBITDA Value-add Business (formerly adjusted EBITDA Extension) is calculated by deducting operating expenses from the segment’s income. Note: The name of this segment was changed without any content-related changes to the segment definition.

Adjusted EBITDA Operations

The adjusted EBITDA Operations is calculated by subtracting the adjusted EBITDA Sales from the adjusted EBITDA of the Group.

Adjusted EBITDA Sales

The adjusted EBITDA Sales is calculated by subtracting all operating expenses (excl. overheads) incurred in connection with sales activities from the profit on the disposal of properties generated by the Group and by adjusting the profit on the disposal of properties to reflect certain reclassification and time effects.

Cash-generating Unit (CGU)

The cash-generating unit refers, in connection with the impairment testing of goodwill, to the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows and outflows independently of the use of other assets or other cash-generating units (CGUs).


Requirements specified in loan agreements or bond conditions containing future obligations of the borrower or the bond obligor to meet specific requirements or to refrain from undertaking certain activities.

CSI (Customer Satisfaction Index)

The CSI is determined at regular intervals by means of systematic customer surveys and reflects how our services are perceived and accepted by our customers. The CSI is determined on the basis of points given by the customers for our properties and their neighborhood, customer service and commercial and technical support as well as maintenance and modernization management.

EPRA (European Public Real Estate Association)

The European Public Real Estate Association (EPRA) is a non-profit organization that has its registered headquarters in Brussels and represents the interests of listed European real estate companies. Its mission is to raise awareness of European listed real estate companies as a potential investment destination that offers an alternative to conventional investments. EPRA is a registered trademark of the European Public Real Estate Association.

EPRA Key Figures

For information on the EPRA key figures, we refer to the chapter on segment reporting according to EPRA.


The presentation of the NAV based on the EPRA definition aims to show the net asset value in a long-term business model. The equity attributable to Vonovia’s shareholders is adjusted to reflect deferred taxes on investment properties/assets held for sale, the fair value of derivative financial instruments and the deferred taxes on derivative financial instruments. In order to boost transparency, an adjusted NAV, which involves eliminating goodwill in full, is also reported.

Fair Value

Valuation pursuant to IAS 40 in conjunction with IFRS 13. The estimated value of an asset. The fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.

Fair Value Step-up

Fair value step-up is the difference between the income from selling a unit and its current fair value in relation to its fair value. It shows the percentage increase in value for the company on the sale of a unit before further costs of sale.

FFO (Funds From Operations)

FFO reflects the recurring earnings from the operating business. In addition to adjusted EBITDA, FFO allow for recurring cash-effective net interest expenses from non-derivative financial instruments as well as income taxes. This key figure is not determined on the basis of any specific international reporting standard but is to be regarded as a supplement to other performance indicators determined in accordance with IFRS.


Vonovia differentiates between

FFO 1: The profit or loss for the period to reflect the adjusted profit or loss from sales; period adjustments from assets held for sale; specific effects that do not relate to the period, are non-recurring or do not relate to the objective of the company; the net income from fair value adjustments of investment properties; depreciation and amortization; deferred and prior-year current taxes (tax expenses/income); transaction costs; prepayment penalties and commitment interest; valuation effects on financial instruments; the unwinding of discounting for provisions, particularly provisions for pensions, and other prior-year interest expenses and income that are not of a long-term nature.

In order to calculate FFO 2, the adjusted EBITDA Sales is added to FFO 1 for the periods in question and adjusted to reflect the FFO taxes attributable to sales.

AFFO refers to capex-adjusted FFO 1 in which FFO 1 is adjusted for capitalized maintenance.

LTV Ratio (Loan-to-Value Ratio)

The LTV ratio shows the extent to which financial liabilities are covered. It shows the ratio of non-derivative financial liabilities pursuant to IFRS, less foreign exchange rate effects, cash and cash equivalents, receivables from disposals, plus purchase prices for outstanding acquisitions, to the total fair values of the real estate portfolio, plus the fair values of outstanding acquisitions and investments in other real estate companies.


Maintenance covers the measures that are necessary to ensure that the property can continue to be used as intended over its useful life and that eliminate structural and other defects caused by wear and tear, age and weathering effects.

Modernization Measures

Modernization measures are long-term and sustainable value-enhancing investments in housing and building stocks. Energy-efficient refurbishments generally involve improvements to the building shell and communal areas as well as the heat and electricity supply systems. Typical examples are the installation of heating systems, the renovation of balconies and the retrofitting of prefabricated balconies as well as the implementation of energy-saving projects, such as the installation of double-glazed windows and heat insulation, e. g., facade insulation, insulation of the top story ceilings and basement ceilings. In addition to modernization of the apartment electrics, the refurbishment work upgrades the apartments, typically through the installation of modern and/or accessible bathrooms, the installation of new doors and the laying of high-quality and non-slip flooring. Where required, the floor plans are altered to meet changed housing needs.

Monthly In-place Rent

The monthly in-place rent is measured in euro per square meter and is the current gross rental income per month for rented units as agreed in the corresponding rent agreements at the end of the relevant month before deduction of non-transferable ancillary costs divided by the living area of the rented units. The in-place rent is often referred to as the so-called “Nettokaltmiete” (rent excl. ancilliary costs such as heating etc.). The monthly in-place rent (in €/m2) on a like-for-like basis refers to the monthly in-place rent for the residential portfolio that was already held by Vonovia 12 months previously, i. e., portfolio changes during this period are not included in the calculation of the in-place rent on a like-for-like basis. If we also include the increase in rent due to new construction measures and measures to add extra stories, then we arrive at the organic increase in rent.

Privatize portfolio

In the “Privatize” portfolio, our focus is on generating additional added value by privatizing owner-occupied apartments and single-family houses at a premium compared with their fair value.


Classification of debtors or securities with regard to their creditworthiness or credit quality according to credit ratings. The classification is generally performed by rating agencies.

Rental Income

Rental income refers to the current gross income for rented units as agreed in the corresponding rent agreements before the deduction of non-transferable ancillary costs.

Sell portfolio

In the “Sell” portfolio, our focus is on selling properties in locations that offer below-average development potential in the medium to long term to private and institutional investors. Limited potential is defined, in particular, by below-average property condition combined with a location that is of similarly below-average quality. It contains locations and properties that were identified in the latest extensive review of the overall portfolio as not being absolutely essential for further strategic development.

Vacancy Rate

The vacancy rate is the number of empty units as a percentage of the total units owned by the company. The vacant units are counted at the end of each month.